Thirty years ago this month, Microsoft released Windows 3.0, a graphical environment that represented a dramatic leap over its predecessors in terms of capability and popularity. Here’s what made Windows 3.0 special.
The First Successful Version of Windows
In the early days on IBM PC compatible machines, most PCs ran Microsoft MS-DOS, a command-line based operating system that typically could only run one program at a time. As computers grew in power in the early 1980s, “multitasking” became a huge buzzword in the industry. Magazine editorials spoke of the productivity increases that would come from being able to run two applications at the same time.
Around that time, ideas about graphical and mouse-based computer interfaces that had been pioneered on the Xerox Alto had begun to filter down into the personal computer industry. After witnessing several early GUI-based operating system approaches, Microsoft released its own graphical mouse-based interface, Windows 1.0, in 1985. It ran on top of MS-DOS and provided a bitmapped display with non-overlapping application windows.
Neither Windows 1.0 nor Windows 2.0 proved successful in the market. Then came Windows 3.0 in 1990, another GUI shell that ran on top of MS-DOS. It allowed multitasking of both MS-DOS programs and specially written Windows applications. Unlike previous versions of Windows, it proved to be a hit, selling over 10 million copies. Third-party application support followed, and Microsoft cemented its PC market operating system dominance.
Here are some of the elements that came together to make both Windows 3.0 unique and successful.
The New Program Manager
In today’s Windows, the Start Menu provides a quick and easy way to organize and launch installed applications. In Windows 3.0 that job was held by Program Manager, which was also the main interface (shell) for Windows.
As a shell, Windows 2.0 had used MS-DOS Executive, which was basically a glorified list of files with no support for application icons. Compared to that, the “large” 16-color icons in Windows 3.0 felt like a revelation, bringing icon detail rivaling expensive color Macintosh computers to relatively inexpensive PCs.
Also, Program Manager was easy to use. Compared to MS-DOS by itself, or Windows 2.0’s MS-DOS Executive shell, Program Manager provided a very non-intimidating interface. Users could easily find and launch applications while being mostly shielded from accidentally messing up its file-based underpinnings.
If you did want to manage files in Windows 3.0, you needed to launch a separate application called File Manager. Today, File Explorer serves as both the main interface and the file manager of Windows 10.
The Debut of Microsoft Solitaire
By now, Solitaire is so heavily associated with Windows that it’s hard to picture the two apart. The famous partnership first came together in 1990 when Microsoft shipped its first-ever version of Solitaire with Windows 3.0. With its detailed cards (and amusing card backs), Solitaire proved an able example of Windows’ graphical capabilities. And of course, it was also a great way to kill time between tasks in the office.
Solitaire featured card faces designed by Susan Kare, who had previously designed many graphical elements and fonts for the Macintosh. She also designed most of the icons for Windows 3.0. Microsoft used Kare’s card graphics all the way up to Windows XP, finally replacing them in Vista.
Windows 3.0 also included the game Reversi with every copy. While Microsoft dropped Reversi in Windows 3.1 (in favor of Minesweeper), Solitaire shipped with Windows all the way up to Windows 7. (Now it’s a weird pay-to-play parody of itself, but that’s another topic entirely.)
Better Memory Management and True Multitasking
Windows 3.0 included advanced memory management that let it use large amounts of RAM, allowing both larger programs and true cooperative multitasking for the first time. When it came to multitasking MS-DOS programs (which many people still used frequently), Windows 1.0 and 2.0 served basically graphical application launchers. In Windows 3.0, users could run multiple MS-DOS applications simultaneously, which felt like magic at the time.
What kind of MS-DOS applications were people running in 1990? Anything and everything, from Lotus 1-2-3 to Captain Comic. Windows proved a boon to multi-node BBSes at the time as well, allowing multiple instances of DOS-based BBS software to run easily on one machine.
A New “3D” Look
It seems amazing today, but Windows 3.0’s buttons represented serious eye candy for a PC graphical interface at the time. They included simulated highlights and shadows that gave the illusion of depth, and as a result, most people referred to the buttons as being “3D.”
Overall, the cleanly-executed Windows 3.0 interface felt crisp and professional, with detailed icons, well-thought-out window arrangements, and nice fonts. For the first time, Windows matched (and arguably surpassed) the visual fidelity of Mac OS, which most considered the benchmark GUI of the time. That visual flair helped make Windows 3.0 so massively popular.
A Turning Point for PCs in the Battle Against Macs
Windows 3.0 represented a turning point in the evolution of PC compatibles when machines capable of a good graphical interface (and all of the peripherals involved) had become low cost enough for mainstream users. In 1990, you could buy a PC capable of running Windows 3.0 for under $1000, while the cheapest color Macintosh was about $2400 at the time. With a PC, a mouse, and a $149 copy of Windows, and you could build an almost Mac-like machine on the cheap.
When more people buy a platform, more companies want to develop for it, and that’s exactly what happened to Windows 3.0. While third-party support had been few and far between in the Windows 1.0 and 2.0 eras, many software vendors hopped aboard to support Windows 3.0, including Aldus with its popular desktop publishing software Aldus PageMaker. For office productivity, Microsoft itself released excellent versions of PowerPoint, Word, and Excel for Windows 3.0, among others. You could get real work done in Windows 3.0.
And Finally, CHESS.BMP
As we close our look back at Windows 3.0, who can forget the glorious 16-color high-resolution (640×480!) wallpaper Microsoft included with every copy?
In an era where VGA cards were finally going mainstream, many users began running the environment in higher resolutions such as 640×480. Suitably, Microsoft included CHESS.BMP, a graphical showcase that depicts a handful of chess pieces flying through the air over a seemingly endless checkerboard plane. Windows users didn’t get built-in screensaver support until Windows 3.1 in 1992, so we took what small pleasures we could get. CHESS.BMP fit the bill perfectly.
Happy birthday, Windows 3.0!
For a blast from the past, we’ll show you how to install Windows 3.1 in DOSBox and run it on a modern PC. Windows 3.1 was released a few years after Windows 3.0 and featured a similar interface.